What are the modern farming methods?

Modern farming methods Modern agriculture aims to increase productivity and obtain the highest possible financial return. There are several basic methods, including:

Plowing The farmer can plow his land in multiple ways to achieve better production of crops, and the reasons behind the use of each method vary, so the farmer must evaluate and determine the appropriate method according to what is in the interest of production,[2] and there are three main types of plowing the land, namely:

  • Primary Tillage: This type of tillage is concerned with the dismantling of the soil agglomerations in the ground, and the re-incorporation of the organic matter present in them. It ranges between 15-60 cm, and this can be done using many hand tools such as a shovel, or by using some industrial tools such as a hand plow, or even some heavy industrial machinery such as an automated tractor.
  • Secondary Tillage, or what is known as Shallow Tillage, this type of tillage aims to reduce the size of the particles that make up the surface soil in the ground, and this type is applied to soils ranging from 8-15 cm depth Approximately, this type of plowing can be done after the completion of the initial plowing process, and there are many tools that can be used for this, such as manual land combs, or even some industrial equipment for this type of land plowing; Disc combs, and toothed combs.
  • Agricultural Tillage: Cultivation Tillage, which is done after planting the agricultural crop, and aims to get rid of any excess plants growing around the agricultural crop, and it is also important in aerating the compacted soil, and any type of manual shovels can be used to do this The type of tillage, bare hands, or even some types of equipment such as knives can be used.Monoculture is defined as the cultivation of one type of crop for several years on the same land, and this type of modern farming techniques appeared after the availability of low-priced nitrogen fertilizers, so that it was possible to compensate for what the soil may miss from important elements as a result of practicing these The method, and to compare it with the Crop rotation method, it is necessary to know the advantages and disadvantages of using monoculture.
  • Monoculture is characterized by the possibility of growing each type of crop in the soil that suits it. There are certain types that are suitable for the nature of the soil on the slopes, and there are other types that are preferred to be grown in the soil in wet areas, while it is preferable to grow some types of crops such as sorghum (English: Sorghum). in dry soils,
  • It is also characterized by the ability to adjust the level of soil fertility and allocate it to suit one type of crop more than allocate it to suit all crops in periodic cultivation. The changes that may arise according to the year depending on the different needs of the various crops.[4] Despite all the advantages and advantages provided by the monoculture method, it is not without some negatives, some of which can be mentioned as follows:
  • Monoculture requires the use of large amounts of artificial or natural fertilizers; To compensate for the lack of nitrogen in the soil as a result of planting one variety of crops in it.
  • This type of cultivation can disturb and erode the structure of the soil.
  • The use of monoculture leads to the use of preventive and curative measures for agricultural crops such as total dependence on chemical insecticides and soil fumigation, while many of these measures can be dispensed with in the operations of periodic cultivation.
  • Monoculture requires more management skills to succeed than rotating farming.
  • irrigation technology

  • Irrigation is defined as the delivery of water to plants and agricultural crops at all stages of their growth; Starting from planting them as seeds in the soil until their fruits are picked and harvested. The irrigation process is of great importance on plants and agricultural crops and positively affects the quality and quantity of crops. It also meets market requirements in all seasons by not relying on rainwater only; To achieve good plant growth, and to avoid any threat that may occur to it in the dry seasons, the exploitation of dry lands for agriculture has become possible by using irrigation systems.
  • The use of modern irrigation systems leads to the production of high-quality crops in large quantities, the optimum use of fertilizers in agricultural lands, the reduction of costs, and the provision of agricultural products out of season, which increases the financial benefit of the returns of these products. There are many types of technology used in irrigation, which are as follows:
  • Furrow irrigation system*: Water channels are placed to direct water from the top of the slope of the furrow to the bottom, and the plants in this system are located on the top of the furrow and between its two edges, so that each plant is approximately one meter away from the other.
  • Flood irrigation system: In this system, the land is divided into small fields, so that each field has parallel edges, and then water flows from the top of these edges to the bottom. Basin irrigation system: The land in this system is divided into basins that are filled with water appropriately, and there is no exit for this water from the basin.
  • Axial sprinkler irrigation system: This system uses a group of mobile sprinklers located on one pipeline, which rise from the ground at a vertical distance of 2-4 meters, and have small and large openings through which the water exits to form a large circle for spraying plants.
  • Manual sprinkler irrigation system: using a series of water sprinklers that can be moved from one place to another using the bare hand, and are connected to a main pipe from which water is pumped, and is used in small irregular fields.
  • Fixed sprinkler irrigation system: The fixed sprinkler irrigation system depends on the presence of fixed sprinklers connected to water lines, often placed in the soil while keeping the sprinklers visible above the soil surface.
  • Mobile sprinkler irrigation system: This system uses large mobile water sprinklers, which are moved through a special device such as a wheel, and the water is delivered to these sprinklers through a flexible hose.
  • Irrigation system via the rolling wheel: using a machine consisting of circular wheels that contain sprinklers and are installed on a pipeline, and one wheel can move horizontally within the cultivation area.
  • Straight or lateral irrigation system: It works in a similar way to the way the pivot irrigation system works, and the difference between them lies in the form of water spray, here the water is sprayed straight and not circular.
  • Low-flow irrigation systems: They include drip irrigation, and crops are irrigated through channels that contain small holes from which water comes out in the form of points very slowly and frequently, directly on the root of the plant.
  • Seed hybridization The technology of seed hybridization has been used in the field of modern agriculture, where scientists have made genetic modifications to the seeds of different plants to develop some of their desirable characteristics; As their resistance to various diseases and pests such as weeds and insects, or even their resistance to drought, and genetically modified seeds grow as the rest of ordinary seeds grow in the soil, and the history of genetic modification of plant seeds dates back to two decades, but this science continued to develop for several centuries through the use of traditional farming techniques different.
  • Genetically modified seeds go through many stages before they reach the hands of farmers for use. First, the trait that researchers want to add to the seeds is determined as disease resistance, or tolerance for lack of water, then this new trait is added to the seed and examined to ensure that it is valid and safe for humans. Environmentally friendly, these checks and tests are reviewed again and again over the years to obtain international approval from governments and finally reach the hands of farmers.
  • Solid and liquid fertilizers, and it is worth mentioning that the anhydrous ammonia compound is one of the forms of fertilizer manufactured in its gaseous state, and although solid and liquid manufactured fertilizers share among themselves, each of them contains the important nutrients that the plant needs, but each of them has its own characteristics and distinctive qualities. Solid fertilizer is less expensive when purchased in large quantities, in addition to being easy to store. Liquid fertilizer is the most common type of manufactured fertilizer in the market; Because of its ease of use, and because it is more effective in distributing nutrients and spreading them through the soil.
  • The use of manufactured fertilizers in modern agriculture has led to a major agricultural revolution that has increased crop production and raised its yield. whose effects are reflected in the soil; As it may kill some types of beneficial bacteria in the soil, such as those that decompose the remains of dead organisms and turn them into useful elements, as well as the increase in soil nitrate levels that may affect human health, and it is worth noting that manufactured fertilizers may pose a threat to water sources. Underground and surface areas, through the infiltration and contamination of fertilizers, accordingly, the use of fertilizers in the correct quantities must be taken into account and not excessively used on the soil.
  • Chemical pesticides Pesticides are defined as any organic, inorganic, or natural compounds or substances that are used to prevent or get rid of pests, whether these pests are insects, animals or harmful plants. Chemical pesticides are classified according to the chemical composition of their components; There are organophosphates, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, and there are other types, including: insecticides that are used to control different types of insects such as mites and house insects, herbicides that destroy weeds, and fungicides to combat some types of harmful fungi.
  • At a time when food crops fight more than 40 thousand different pests ranging from weeds, insects, and worms, the great importance of these pesticides has emerged in preserving agricultural wealth, protecting it from these pests, and developing the productive capacities of farmers, by helping them provide High-quality crops at affordable prices and permanently throughout the year without interruption, and one American study indicated that if only one type of pesticide – a fungicide – is not used, the production of vegetable and fruit crops will decrease to a rate ranging between 50-90%, and this It indicates the importance of pesticides in providing the quantities of global food needed to fight hunger around the world, reduce food exposure to contamination with harmful microorganisms, and prevent food-related diseases.
  • Modern methods applied in agriculture Protected agriculture Protected agriculture is one of the agricultural methods based on modifying and modifying the natural environment to reach the optimum level for the growth of plants in it.
  • This method of agriculture allows to increase the productivity of vegetable and horticultural crops with high quality in greenhouses, or inside sieves or tunnels, in areas that suffer from problems that make traditional agriculture impossible, and this is done by controlling environmental factors; Such as lighting, temperature, humidity, and wind by means of special equipment, and the characteristics of the greenhouse are controlled according to its location. In winter, in the tropics and subtropics, greenhouses are built of porous plastic films or flexible plastic panels to reduce the internal temperature and provide adequate ventilation.
  • Hydroponic farming is known as one of the agricultural methods based on replacing the soil with a solution that contains the nutrients needed by the plant. Irrigated agriculture is the cultivation of almost any crop, as it is used to grow lettuce, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, strawberries, watercress, and celery, where the water is supplied with the appropriate nutrients according to the type of crop to be produced.
  • Vertical farming The need for vertical farming arose due to the expansion of cities and the decline of agricultural lands, which necessitated the development of agricultural and engineering methods for growing plants in urban areas, and relies on the idea of ​​planting on rooftops vertically instead of horizontal farming, where vertical farming contributes to the exploitation of spaces for cultivation, increasing food production and decreasing plants need water
  • Vertical farming is also called controlled environment agriculture; Traditional natural resources that plants need, such as soil and sunlight, are being replaced by technological methods to deliver the nutrients plants need, and innovative lighting systems are used to stimulate photosynthesis.
  • Modern agriculture Agriculture faces constant challenges due to population growth, resource depletion, increasing focus on the industrial sector at the expense of rural areas, and increasing concerns about environmental damage and health risks emanating from food contaminants. The English philosopher Thomas Malthus began:Thomas Malthus) in 1798 AD his arguments about the equilibrium equation between food production and population growth, he noticed the imbalance between them, and this is due – from his point of view – to the limited material resources, and the inability to study the growth between them, and I believe that this discrepancy will lead to the deterioration of the available food that threatens health However, after that, his beliefs were not correct, as technology did not fail to invest the earth’s resources and increase agricultural production in the appropriate quantity for the population’s sufficiency in food, which led to the emergence of the concept of modern agriculture that depends on technology that increases soil fertility, and provides nutrients to the soil in case It has been drained, so that it stimulates plant growth, reduces soil loss, and applies an improved genetics process that increases productivity and efficiency.
  • The history of modern agriculture The concept of modern agriculture began to appear at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and this concept led to a great revolution in the world of agricultural production within a short period of time, so new and innovative agricultural methods were followed that would significantly increase agricultural output Very, and through this system, the available agricultural resources were perfectly exploited, and one of the agricultural methods that appeared in that period and beyond is the change of the crop cycle system from three crops to four, and the reproduction of high-quality crops (selective hybridization) is carried out in a manner that Industrial,
  • This is in addition to the introduction of automatic tractors to plow the land instead of the plowing process that was carried out using animals, and many things were used that would protect the crop from damage; Such as placing toxins for weeds that grow between crops, and making sure to plant types of crops that have the ability to resist diseases, as well as the use of many natural materials as natural fertilizers, including: animal dung, wood ash, and crushed bones; To increase the effectiveness of the soil and provide it with nutrients. [20] Modern farming methods have developed with scientific progress and the development of new energy sources. While the average farmer in the early twentieth century produced a crop sufficient for his family only, he can now produce an agricultural crop sufficient for dozens of families, and some believe that the use of modern farming technology has not contributed Only by positively influencing the agricultural field, but also having a role in advancing the wheel of urban development and the development of the industrial revolution; The possibility of obtaining a good output from the crops with few labors led to saving these hands and directing them to other sectors such as industry.
  • Pros and cons of modern farming

  • Agriculture in its old concept – before the emergence of what is known as modern agriculture – has significant effects on the whole world, as it consumed in the past more than a third of the land area around the world, and consumed 85% of the share of water consumption, and many other manifestations of imbalance created by ancient agriculture, But the emergence of modern agricultural techniques such as modern irrigation, manufactured fertilizers, the use of modern agricultural machinery, pesticides and other techniques, helped to reduce these manifestations and stop their development, and thanks to these techniques, the production quantities of high-quality agricultural crops increased very dramatically while reducing the area of ​​land allocated For agriculture, productivity has tripled, and the use of modern agricultural machinery has reduced the percentage of dependence on labor and the number of animals that were relied upon in the old farming operations, and in return for all that modern farming methods provided, it led to some problems; environment pollution

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